Science (derived from the Latin word scientia, meaning “knowledge”) is a set of knowledge based on the method of scientific research, that is, knowledge that is derived from and organized into the results of research. Science, in some cases, does not include applied science.

Science can be divided into two main groups.

Natural sciences – all kinds of sciences that study the phenomena of any natural thing,
Social sciences – these are the sciences that study human and social phenomena.
In some cases, mathematics can be divided into a third group, the formal science. This is because mathematics has many similarities and differences between the natural and social sciences mentioned above. Abstract science includes statistical and logical sciences. Significant advances in abstract science have led to significant advances in the physical, biological, and chemical sciences. Abstract science is the basis of conjecture, theory, and the laws of physics, and they are the basis for discovering the nature of any natural or social phenomenon.

Prior to the 18th and 19th centuries, scientific thinking was defined only by the motives of the mind and the orders of deductive logic.