When the weather is scorching, the only thing most of us feel like doing is jumping into the nearest body of water, whether it be a pool or the sea, in efforts to cool down. However, spending hours trying to cool off in the water without adequate protection from the sun or the heat can lead to adverse situations, the most prevalent and fatal being heatstroke (or sunstroke).

Heatstroke can be defined as a state of exhaustion and unconsciousness that develops as a result of the body failing to regulate its temperature after spending prolonged periods of time in excessively hot environments. It occurs when your body temperature rises to 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit) or higher after exertion or being out in the sun.

Characterized by fever, dizziness, headache, mental changes, fatigue, muscle weakness, cramps, irritability, drowsiness, nausea and seizures, this condition is mostly seen in children under the age of 4 because they are more sensitive to heat and neither their body’s temperature-regulating system nor their vascular system has developed adequately. Older adults and overweight individuals are also at higher risk.

“If treatment isn’t given quickly, serious damage can occur in the brain, heart, kidneys and muscles, even leading to life-threatening situations such as organ failure. Therefore, being cautious against sunstroke is vital,” child health and diseases specialist Dr. Çiğdem Yavrucu said.

Here are eight tips to protect yourself and your children from heatstroke.

1. Avoid sun during peak hours

Especially if you have children, try to keep them from going outside between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. when the sun’s rays are most perpendicular to the earth and when exposure to UV rays is most dangerous. Avoid doing heavy exercise and sports during hotter hours. Do outdoor activities early in the morning or in the evening. Also, allow your body some time to adjust to temperature changes, especially after being in a cool, air-conditioned room. Be careful when first going out into the heat and try to gradually transition from the shade into the sun.

2. Drink, drink, drink

Preventing your body from getting dehydrated is one of the most effective ways of preventing heat or sunstroke.

“Whenever there is a loss of fluid after periods of sweating due to excessive heat, it is normal to see symptoms such as high fever and fatigue/weakness in children. Therefore, make sure your child drinks plenty of water. Especially children in the 1-3 age group cannot realize that they are thirsty. Help them turn it into a habit to drink 1-1.5 liters of water throughout the day without waiting for them to actually say they are thirsty,” Yavrucu said.

3. Sunscreen: Give yourself at least 15-30 minutes

One of the biggest mistakes people make while trying to protect their skin from the sun is to apply sunscreen just before they head out the door. Though for inorganic sunscreens (also referred to as physical sunscreens) that contain UV filters such as zinc oxide and titanium dioxide this may not be the case, organic sunscreens which contain filters such as avobenzone and tinosorb S do not act immediately and need time to soak into the skin. Some of the cream will be absorbed by the skin or evaporate to leave behind a thin UV-protective layer. Regardless of age or skin color, make sure to wear a sun protection factor (SPF) of 30 or higher.